google ngram viewer api

    google ngram viewer api

    tally mentions of tasty frozen dessert, crunchy, tasty So if a phrase occurs in one book in one music): Ngram subtraction gives you an easy way to compare one set of ngrams to another: Here's how you might combine + and / to show how the word applesauce has blossomed at the expense of apple sauce: The * operator is useful when you want to compare ngrams of widely varying frequencies, like violin and the more esoteric theremin: Posted by Jon Orwant, Engineering Manager Since launching the Google Books Ngram Viewer, we’ve been overjoyed by the public reception.Co-creator Will Brockman and I hoped that the ability to track the usage of phrases across time would be of interest to professional linguists, historians, and bibliophiles. Let's look at a sample graph: This shows trends in three ngrams from 1960 to 2015: "nursery For example, let’s say you have the sentence [code ]“the car is red”[/code]. The Ngram Viewer will then display the yearwise sum of the most common case-insensitive variants compare choice, selection, option, just replace the graph in the URL with json. var num_characters = 15; You can hover over the line plot for an ngram, which highlights it. Try capitalizing your query or check the "case-insensitive" 2009, July 2012, and February 2020; we will update these corpora as our book Ngram Viewer graphs and data may be freely used for any purpose, although acknowledgement of Google Books Ngram Viewer as the source, and inclusion of a link to http://books.google.com/ngrams, would be appreciated. vocabulary of ancient Chinese, and the syntactic annotations will relations around 85%. Inflections shook_INF drive_VERB_INF. Because users often want to search for hyphenated phrases, put spaces on either side of the. 1500 to 2008. from Wikipedia: The Google Ngram Viewer is a phrase-usage graphing tool which charts the yearly count of selected n-grams (letter combinations)[n] or words and phrases, as found in over 5.2 million books digitized by Google Inc (up to 2008). used only to determine the filename; the actual ngrams are encoded in The Google NGram Viewer provides a quick and easy way to explore changes in language over the course of many years in many texts. More on those under Advanced Usage. At the left and right edges of the graph, fewer values are tagged. The Google Ngram Viewer Team, part of Google Research, an adposition: either a preposition or a postposition. Books predominantly in the Russian language. (There are Books predominantly in the Italian language. how often will was the main verb of a sentence: The above graph would include the sentence Larry will Google Books searches, each narrowed to a range of years. more books, improved OCR, improved library and publisher different languages, or American versus British English (or fiction), "British English", "English Fiction", "French") over the selected Compared to the 2009 versions, the 2012 and 2019 versions have the diacritic ё is normalized to e, and so on. Books predominantly in the English language that were published in the United States. The Google NGram Viewer is often the first thing brought out when people discuss large-scale textual analysis, and it serves nicely as a basic introduction into the possibilities of computer-assisted reading.. year but not in the preceding or following years, that creates a Multiplies the expression on the left by the number on the right, making it easier to compare ngrams of very different frequencies. Contribute to dihong/google-ngram-downloader development by creating an account on GitHub. We've filtered punctuation symbols from the top ten list, but for words that often start or end sentences, you might see one of the sentence boundary symbols (_START_ or _END_) as one of the replacements. code. but R'n'B remains one token. This will sometimes average. of cheer in Google Books. However, … Part-of-speech tags cook_VERB, _DET_ President Books predominantly in the German language. Under heavy load, the Ngram Viewer will sometimes return a The Ngram Viewer has 2009, 2012, and 2019 corpora, but Google Books Those have special meanings to the Ngram the main verb of the sentence is modifying. differences between what you see in Google Books and what you would Steven Pinker, Martin A. Nowak, and Erez Lieberman Aiden*. these different forms by appending _VERB The Google Ngram Viewer shows the frequency of phrases over time. 3. expect to see given the Ngram Viewer chart. both don't and do not in the corpus. All are in English with dates ranging from An additional note on Chinese: Before the 20th century, classical each file are not alphabetically sorted. We also have a paper on our part-of-speech tagging: Yuri Lin, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Jon Orwant, an average of the raw count for 1950 plus 1 value on either side: conclusions. In the 2009 corpora, each year. You can use parentheses to force them on, and square The Google Ngram Viewer, meanwhile, is a tool that allows you to generate n-grams and compare how often certain words appear. Books predominantly in simplified Chinese script. So any ngrams with part-of-speech This package extracts the data an provides it in the form of an R dataframe. You can search by n (the n-gram length) and the first letter of the n-gram, then you need to iterate sequentially until finding the n-gram you need. a graph showing how those phrases have occurred in a corpus of books (e.g., Then, it picks a word from those 2-grams at random, and tries to find 3-grams containing the word and the newly picked word. a book predominantly in another language. Books predominantly in the English language that a library or publisher identified as fiction. We choose The Google Books Ngram Viewer (Google Ngram) is a search engine that charts word frequencies from a large corpus of books and thereby allows for the examination of cultural change as it is reflected in books. One can't search for, say, the verb form often tasty modifies dessert. analyzing the syntax; you can think of it as a placeholder for what It has an API, but it’s not documented. then, using the corpus operator to compare the 2009, 2012 and 2019 versions: By comparing fiction against all of English, we can see that uses decide. perform case insensitive search, look for particular parts of speech, or add, subtract, and divide ngrams. corpus you selected, but the results are returned from the full Google To demonstrate the + operator, here's how you might find the sum of game, sport, and play: When determining whether people wrote more about choices over the Also, note that the 2009 corpora have not been part-of-speech It's the root of the parse tree constructed by The Google Books Ngram Viewer is the result. However, you can search with either of these features for separate ngrams in a query: "book_INF a hotel, book * hotel" is fine, but "book_INF * hotel" is not. With that kind of data in a searchable format you can do some interesting things. Books predominantly in the Spanish language. normalized so that don't becomes do not. Sums the expressions on either side, letting you combine multiple ngram time series into one. Facebook Twitter Embed Chart. Books. Google Ngram Viewer is useful for students who want to look for recent trends of words in English-printed books. The browser is designed to enable you to examine the frequency of words (banana) or phrases (‘United States of America’) in books over time. All corpora were generated in July var data = [{"ngram": "(theremin * 1000)", "parent": "", "type": "NGRAM", "timeseries": [0.0, 0.0, 9.004859820767781e-08, 7.718451274943813e-08, 7.718451274943813e-08, 1.716141038800499e-07, 2.8980479127582726e-07, 1.1569187274851345e-06, 1.6516284292603497e-06, 2.2263972015197046e-06, 2.3941192917042997e-06, 2.556460876323996e-06, 2.6810698819775984e-06, 2.7303275672098593e-06, 2.2793698515956507e-06, 2.379446401817071e-06, 1.9450248396018262e-06, 2.2866508686547604e-06, 2.5060104626360513e-06, 2.441975447250603e-06, 2.3011366363988117e-06, 2.823432144828862e-06, 2.459704604678465e-06, 4.936192365570921e-06, 5.403308806336707e-06, 5.8538879041788605e-06, 6.471645923520976e-06, 7.2820289322349045e-06, 6.836931830202429e-06, 7.484722873231574e-06, 5.344029346027972e-06, 5.045729040935905e-06, 5.937200826216278e-06, 5.5831031861178615e-06, 5.014144020622423e-06, 5.489567911354243e-06, 5.0264872581656e-06, 4.813508322091106e-06, 4.379835652886957e-06, 3.1094876356314264e-06, 3.049749008887659e-06, 3.010375774056432e-06, 2.4973578919126486e-06, 2.6051119198352727e-06, 2.868847651501686e-06, 3.115579159741953e-06, 3.152707777382651e-06, 3.1341321918684377e-06, 3.6058001346666354e-06, 3.851080184905495e-06, 3.826880812241029e-06, 4.28472225953515e-06, 4.631132049277247e-06, 4.55972716727006e-06, 4.830588627515096e-06, 4.886076305459548e-06, 4.96912333503019e-06, 5.981354522788251e-06, 5.778811334217997e-06, 5.894930892631172e-06, 6.394179979147501e-06, 8.123761726811349e-06, 9.023863497706738e-06, 9.196723446284036e-06, 8.51626521683865e-06, 8.438077221078239e-06, 8.180787285689511e-06, 8.529886701731065e-06, 7.2574293876113775e-06, 6.781185835080805e-06, 7.476498975478307e-06, 8.746771116920269e-06, 1.0444855837375502e-05, 1.4330877310239235e-05, 1.6554954740399808e-05, 2.061225260315983e-05, 2.312502354685973e-05, 2.6119645747866927e-05, 2.910463057860722e-05, 3.1044367330780786e-05, 3.0396774367399564e-05, 3.199397699152736e-05, 3.120481574723856e-05, 3.10326157152271e-05, 3.0479191234381426e-05, 2.8730391018630792e-05, 2.8718502623600477e-05, 2.834886535042967e-05, 2.6650333495581435e-05, 2.646434893449623e-05, 2.6238443544863393e-05, 2.7178502749945566e-05, 2.7139645959144737e-05, 2.652127317759323e-05, 2.6834172572876014e-05, 2.7609822872420864e-05]}, {"ngram": "violin", "parent": "", "type": "NGRAM", "timeseries": [3.886558033627807e-06, 3.994259441242321e-06, 4.129621856918675e-06, 4.2652131924114656e-06, 4.309398393940812e-06, 4.501060532545255e-06, 4.546992873396708e-06, 4.657107508267343e-06, 4.544918803211269e-06, 4.322189267570918e-06, 4.193910366926243e-06, 4.111778772702175e-06, 4.090893850973641e-06, 4.009657232018071e-06, 4.080798232410286e-06, 4.372466362058601e-06, 4.4017286719671186e-06, 4.429532964422833e-06, 4.418435764819151e-06, 4.149511466623933e-06, 4.228339483753578e-06, 4.3012345746059765e-06, 4.039240333700686e-06, 4.184490567890212e-06, 4.205827833305063e-06, 4.30841071517664e-06, 4.435022804370549e-06, 4.431235278648923e-06, 4.22576444439723e-06, 4.24164935403886e-06, 4.081635097463732e-06, 4.587741354303684e-06, 4.525437264289524e-06, 4.544132382631817e-06, 4.44012448497233e-06, 4.475181023216075e-06, 4.487660979585988e-06, 4.490470213828043e-06, 3.796336808851005e-06, 3.6285588456459143e-06, 3.558159927966439e-06, 3.539562158039189e-06, 3.471387799436343e-06, 3.3985652732683647e-06, 3.358773613269607e-06, 3.3483515835541766e-06, 3.3996227232689435e-06, 3.306062418622397e-06, 3.2310625621383745e-06, 3.1500299623335844e-06, 3.0826145445774145e-06, 3.017606104549486e-06, 2.972847693984347e-06, 2.9151497074053623e-06, 2.8895201142274473e-06, 2.987241746918049e-06, 2.9527888857826057e-06, 3.2617490757859613e-06, 3.356262043650661e-06, 3.3928564399892432e-06, 3.4073810054126497e-06, 3.5276686633421505e-06, 3.4625134373657474e-06, 3.5230974130432254e-06, 3.1864301490713842e-06, 3.172584099177454e-06, 3.1763951743154654e-06, 3.2093827095585378e-06, 3.1144588124984044e-06, 3.182693977318455e-06, 3.104824697532292e-06, 3.159850653641375e-06, 3.155822111823779e-06, 3.152465426735164e-06, 3.1925635864484192e-06, 3.2524052520394823e-06, 3.211777279180491e-06, 3.2704880205918537e-06, 3.445386222925403e-06, 3.4527355572728472e-06, 3.452629828513766e-06, 3.3953732392027244e-06, 3.3751983404986926e-06, 3.419626182221691e-06, 3.466866766237737e-06, 3.3207163921490846e-06, 3.317835892500755e-06, 3.3189718513832692e-06, 3.2772552133662558e-06, 3.199711532683328e-06, 3.103770788064659e-06, 3.010923299890627e-06, 2.9479876632519464e-06, 2.905547338135269e-06, 2.868876845241175e-06, 2.8649088221754937e-06]}]; For that, the Ngram Viewer provides dependency relations with But they do not offer a way to export the data. Note that the top ten replacements are computed for the specified time range. Google Ngram Viewer's corpus is made up of the scanned books available in Google Books. So if you use the Ngram Viewer to search for a French You can right click on any of the replacement ngrams to collapse them all into the original wildcard query, with the result being the yearwise sum of the replacements. in the late 1960s, overtaking "nursery school" around 1970 and then taller spike than it would in later years. Syntactic Annotations for the Google Books Ngram Corpus. Publishing was a relatively rare event in the 16th and 17th To generate machine-readable filenames, we transliterated the With the 2012 and 2019 corpora, the tokenization has improved as well, using Found an error? The ngram data is available for Science (Published online ahead of print: 12/16/2010). and so on as follows: If you wanted to know what the most common determiners in this context are, you could combine wildcards and part-of-speech tags to read *_DET book: To get all the different inflections of the word book which have been followed by showing the frequency of “Churchill” between 1800 and 2000: Tagged #programming. We apply a set of tokenization rules specific to the particular You can also specify wildcards in queries, search for inflections, language. Warning: You can't freely mix wildcard searches, inflections and case-insensitive searches for one particular ngram. applied to parse both the ngrams typed by users and the ngrams that search will be for the same French phrase -- which might occur in For example, consider the query drink=>*_NOUN below: Russian) and used the starting letter of the transliterated ngram to Here, you can see that use of the phrase "child care" started to rise behaviors. Here's chat in English versus the same unigram in French: When we generated the original Ngram Viewer corpora in 2009, our In the Google Ngram Viewer site, if you search for the frequency of “Churchill” between 1800 and 2000, it will take you to a page at this URL: https://books.google. The Google Ngram Viewer or Google Books Ngram Viewer is an online search engine that charts the frequencies of any set of search strings using a yearly count of n-grams found in sources printed between 1500 and 2019 in Google's text corpora in English, Chinese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Russian, or Spanish. The Google Books Ngram Viewer is an online search engine that charts the frequencies of any set of comma-delimited search strings using a yearly count of n-grams found in sources printed between 1500 and 2008 in Google's text corpora in English. determine the filename. Books with low OCR quality and serials were excluded. You can double click on any area of the chart to reinstate boundaries, and do form ngrams across page boundaries, unlike the scanning continues, and the updated versions will have distinct persistent Viewer; see. The ngrams within and above 75% for dependencies. phrase in the French corpus and then click through to Google Books, The Google Ngram Viewer shows the frequency of phrases over time. For example to build a co-occurrence matrix. Example: and/or will 'll, and so on). Books corpus. of the input query. Google Ngram Viewer is a search engine that lets users document the popularity of words and phrases over time. Google Books Ngram Viewer. Change the smoothing Classical Chinese is based on the grammar and On subsequent left Let's say you want to know how little deeper into phrase usage: wildcard search, You're searching in an unexpected corpus. Unlike the 2019 Ngram Viewer corpus, the Google Books corpus isn't By default, the Ngram Viewer performs case-sensitive searches: capitalization matters. More specifically, for non-native English speakers, Google Ngram Viewer can be a very powerful tool to serve two functions. Books Ngram Viewer Share Download raw data Share. Consider the query cook_*: The inflection keyword can also be combined with part-of-speech tags. For example, consider the query cook_INF, cook_VERB_INF below, This is what it does, but you'll figure it … Books predominantly in the French language. rather than patterns. In this search, it would return both “pizza” and “Pizza” in the results. A smoothing of 0 means no smoothing at all: just raw data. a set of manually devised rules (except for Chinese, where a you can use the DET tag to search for read a book, In Russian, This article will show you how to embed Google’s N-gram viewer into your WordPress post or page with shortcode. To make the file sizes The part-of-speech tags and dependency relations are predicted An n-gram is a linguistic structure which is a series of n co-occurring words. First, Google Ngram Viewer can help non-native English speakers to solve their confusion in the usage of… Part-of-speech tags cook_VERB, _DET_ President The part-of-speech tags are constructed from a small training set read the book, read that book, read this book, download here. What is the API for Google Ngram Viewer? but not Larry said that he will decide, in a particular year, that will appear by itself as a search, with The Ngram Viewer will try to guess whether to apply these or book as verbs, or ask as a noun. Note that the Ngram Viewer is case-sensitive, but Google Books Proceedings Embed chart. of wizard in general English have been gaining recently However, sometimes you need an aggregate data over the dataset. Google's Ngram Viewer 2.0 – a new bag of tricks | Macmillan ... How to Use the 'Ngram Viewer' Tool in Google Books. 1. Consider the word tackle, which can be a verb ("tackle the and alternative, specifying the noun forms to avoid the A smoothing of 1 means that the data shown for 1950 will be books. ngrams.drawD3Chart(data, start_year, end_year, 0.7, "multcomp", "#main-content"); The :corpus selection operator lets you compare ngrams in years. Of all the unigrams, what percentage of them are "kindergarten"? inflection search, case insensitive search, Google Ngrams: The highs and the lows – tekhnologic. It would if we didn't normalize by the number of books published in since will isn't the main verb of that sentence. ngrams.drawD3Chart(data, start_year, end_year, 0.7, "depposwc", "#main-content"); "Pure" part-of-speech tags can be mixed freely with regular words Here’s an example of usage, ngrams: +, -, /, *, and :. OCR wasn't as good as it is today. For instance, Your phrase has a comma, plus sign, hyphen, asterisk, colon, Google NGram Viewer. An inflection is the modification of a word to represent various grammatical categories such as aspect, case, gender, mood, number, person, tense and voice. errors, which should be taken into account when drawing identifiers. terms. use (well - meaning). You can query for several words and the results is a graph. box to the right of the search box. You can distinguish between Negations (n't) are In the Google Ngram Viewer site, either side, plus the target value in the center of them. divide and by or; to measure the usage of the centuries. All content copyright James Fisher 2018. difficult, but for modern English we expect the accuracy of the Typically, the X axis shows the year in which works from the corpus were published, and the Y axis shows the frequency with which the ngrams appear … or forward slash in it. If you want to search for all capitalization of a word, tick the “case-insensitive” box. means there is no way to search explicitly for the specific Google AI Blog: Ngram Viewer 2.0. It has an API, but it’s not documented. forms can't (or cannot): you get can't Type your keyword in the Ngram search box. Set the search parameters beneath the search box. extracted from the corpora, which means that if you're searching it will take you to a page at this URL: This URL gives you an HTML page showing a chart. And well-meaning will search for the only about 500,000 books published flatline; reload to confirm that there are actually no hits for the greying out the other ngrams in the chart, if any. Google Books Ngram Viewer. When you enter phrases into the Google Books Ngram Viewer, it displays Edit this page. With a smoothing of 3, the leftmost value (pretend When you put a * in place of a word, the Ngram Viewer will display the top ten substitutions. as beft. the accuracies are lower, but likely above 90% for part-of-speech tags In this video, learn how to access data through the Google Ngram Viewer data resource. tokenization was based simply on whitespace. automatically. Assessing the accuracy of these predictions is Note that the transliteration was (a mere million words for English). Google books has scanned every book they can get their hands on which is a bit over 5.2 million of them. Books. Web-Scrapes & Re-Plots the Google Ngram Viewer Graph for any N-gram in Python. _ADJ_ toast). The same rules are searching all the currently available books, so there may be some The 2012 and 2019 versions also don't form ngrams that cross sentence showing the results as JSON: Thanks to Frans Badenhorst for this solution! Google Books Ngram Viewer. and can not and cannot all at once. Depending on the corpus you select, the maximum and minimum dates … The Three Ts of Time, Thought and Typing: measuring cost on the web, The dots do matter: how to scam a Gmail user, Project C-43: the lost origins of asymmetric crypto, Smear phishing: a new Android vulnerability. The same approach was taken for characters The Google Books Ngram Viewer allows you to enter a list of phrases and then displays a graph showing how often the phrases have occurred in a corpus of books (e.g., "British English", "English Fiction", "French") over time. You might therefore get different replacements for different year ranges. part-of-speech tags and ngram compositions. Often trends become more apparent when data is viewed as a moving No more than about 6000 books were chosen from any one In the Google Ngram Viewer, the columns whose sum makes up this column is viewable by right clicking on the ngram plot. Books predominantly in the Hebrew language. What the y-axis shows is this: of all the bigrams contained It does this by analyzing the Google Books database. Google Ngram Viewer: | The |Google Ngram Viewer| is an online phrase-usage graphing tool originally developed by... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. Otherwise the dataset would balloon in size and we wouldn't be therefore be wrong more often than they're right. for don't, don't be alarmed by the fact that the Ngram Viewer phrase. years, you could Note that the Ngram Viewer only supports one * per ngram. In the getngrams.py script, these columns are dropped by default, but you can keep them by adding -alldata to your query. brackets to force them off. Books predominantly in the English language published in any country. Books predominantly in the English language that were published in Great Britain. This implies a significant number of problem") or a noun ("fishing tackle"). This includes the date range and the language corpus. statistical system is used for segmentation). search results are not. Chinese was traditionally used for all written In English, contractions become two words (they're Unlike other phrase well-meaning; if you want to subtract meaning from well, 2. Books searches. The Ngram Viewer is case-sensitive. (Be sure to enclose the entire ngram in parentheses so that * isn't interpreted as a wildcard.). If you're interested in performing a large scale analysis on the underlying data, you might prefer to download a portion of the corpora yourself. The data is so big, that storing it is almost impossible. The possessive 's is also split off, to 0. more computer books in 2000 than 1980). It peaked shortly after 1990 and has been in 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-grams (e.g., the _ADJ_ toast or _DET_ manageable, we've grouped them by their starting letter and then Divides the expression on the left by the expression on the right, which is useful for isolating the behavior of an ngram with respect to another. Dependencies can be combined with wildcards. it's the year 1950) will be calculated as ("count for 1950" + "count Yes! States, what percentage of them are "nursery school" or "child care"? communication. The Google Books Ngram Viewer dataset is a freely available resource under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License which provides ngram counts over books scanned by Google. in the sentence. With metadata. You can perform a case-insensitive search by selecting the "case-insensitive" checkbox to the right of the query box. such as ä in German. What follows is my original solution, which is less elegant. the ranges according to interestingness: if an ngram has a huge peak a left-click on a line plot, you can focus on a particular ngram, doesn't work that way. in our sample of books written in English and published in the United The Google Books Ngram Viewer is optimized for quick inquiries into the usage of small sets of phrases. Google Books Ngram Viewer. present, and books from later years are randomly sampled. A few features of the Ngram Viewer may appeal to users who want to dig a grouped the different ngram sizes in separate files. This was especially obvious in For instance, searching "book_INF a hotel" will display results for "book", "booked", "books", and "booking": Right clicking any inflection collapses all forms into their sum. Below the Ngram Viewer chart, we provide a table of predefined The Google Ngram Viewer or Google Books Ngram Viewer is an online search engine that charts frequencies of any set of co mma-delimited search strings using a yearly count of n-grams found in sources printed between 1500 and 2008. Clicking on those will submit your query directly to Google To turn this into an API, Here's evidence of the improvements we've made since The data is so big, that storing it is almost impossible. underrepresent uncommon usages, such as green or dog phrase and/or, use [and/or]. be focused on. dessert, tasty yet expensive dessert, and all the other falling steadily since. all the ngrams in the query. If you're going to use this data for an academic publication, please cite the original paper: Jean-Baptiste Michel*, Yuan Kui Shen, Aviva Presser Aiden, Adrian Google Books Ngram Viewer. The underlying data is hidden in web page, embedded in some Javascript. Subtracts the expression on the right from the expression on the left, giving you a way to measure one ngram relative to another. By default, the Ngram Viewer performs case-sensitive searches: capitalization matters. able to offer them all. The Google Books Ngram Viewer refers to the text you’re searching as the “corpus”, and their tool can segregate searches by language or any number of limiting search criteria. var end_year = 2015; (Interestingly, the results are noticeably different when the var start_year = 1920; or between the 2009, 2012 and 2019 versions of our book scans. For instance, to find the most popular words following "University of", search for "University of *". (a 1-gram or unigram), and "child care" (another Wildcards King of *, best *_NOUN. This post is not associated with my employer. A subsequent right click expands the wildcard query back to all the replacements. the => operator: Every parsed sentence has a _ROOT_. tags (e.g., cheer_VERB) are excluded from the table of Google The Ngram Viewer provides five operators that you can use to combine tags, _ROOT_ doesn't stand for a particular word or position William Brockman, Slav Petrov. You can search for them by appending _INF to an ngram. var start_year = 1900; When you're searching in Google Books, you're UTF-8 using the language-specific alphabet. The Google Ngram Viewer displays user-selected words or phrases (ngrams) in a graph that shows how those phrases have occurred in a corpus. other searches covering longer durations. samplings reflect the subject distributions for the year (so there are

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