: «Poteri russkoj armii v vojnu 1914-1918» [The losses of the army during the 1914-1918 war], Trudy komissii po obsledovaniju sanitarnyh posledstvij vojny 1914-1920 gg. Some 80 percent (1.5 million) still suffered from neurosis or confusion (talking nonsense, loss of memory or hearing), or had even become mentally ill in the proper sense of the term. Nestor Makhno Nestor Makhno Addendum: Civilian Casualties, The Russian Civil War and the 30 Years War. The violence in battles such as Shiloh, Antietam, Stones River and Gettysburg shocked everyone in the country, both North and South. However, the perceived threat of another intervention, combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries, most notably the German Revolution, contributed to the continued militarization of Soviet society. Russian prisoners of war in Germany, 1914-1922]. The Russian Civil War was to tear Russia apart for three years â between 1918 and 1921. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. It is, however, possible, as we shall see, to establish a rough estimate. is licensed under: CC by-NC-ND 3.0 Germany - Attribution, Non-commercial, No Derivative Works. Only a strong resistance on the part of the civilian authority stopped the operation degenerating into death marches like those of the Armenian genocide. Russia - Russia - The Civil War and War Communism (1918â21): One side can start a war, but it takes two to end one.  This can be explained by the growth of the urban population with the arrival of refugees, the wounded and sick, and the high level of infant mortality. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. The Russian Civil War - When did it end? The army updated its lists as well as it could, and sometimes communicated its results. See also World War I casualties da. The Russian Civil War suffocated the revolution, destroyed democracy, and cleared the way for Stalinist dictatorship. Most of them were civilians.  Nearly 6 million refugees, for the most part non-Russian, surged into Russia at the same time, suffering all the ups and downs resulting from a chaotic expedition and total destitution. 1, d. 853, l. 6. 7-46. Firstly, the question of figures has sparked a debate which, even with a close study of the available sources, cannot be settled. Alexandre Sumpf, Université de Strasbourg, Section Editors: Boris Kolonickij; Nikolaus Katzer. However, the exact figure has been disputed, with the Soviets estimating the number to be about 20 million (approximately 13.7% of the population at the time). According to Pravda, "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. In 1916, the army Chief of Staff acknowledged more than 5.3 million losses (sick, wounded, missing, killed and taken prisoner), but with an important variable: Russia reported around 439,396 missing, of whom one-third were probably killed, one-third died during care, and another third were sent to prisoner of war camps. The tendency of the former to minimize losses, and of the latter to exaggerate the quality of treatment for the sick and wounded by particular institutions was accentuated by the distortion owing to temporal and geographical distance. The civil war was particularly violent in the old Pale of Settlement – the western regions of the empire where the tsarist laws had confined the Jews from 1791 onwards, forbidding them to enter the main towns and villages. Later, a national memorial to remember the victims of the Petrograd repression was proposed. The Polish victory resulted in the establishment of the Russo-Polish border that existed until 1939. In August 1916, detachments of Kazakh horsemen swept down on the Russians around Lake Issyk-Kul, killed the men, carried off 1,500 women and children as hostages and burned everything in their path. The thanksgiving services conducted by the priest of the village only offered a mediocre consolation and could not prevent a reflection on the conflict and the political system responsible for it. Peace and the delayed demobilization, the choices of the civil war, the evacuations that were more or less consented to, rendered the collective initiatives for commemoration after the war almost impossible. The Union armies had from 2,500,000 to 2,750,000 men. Forced to react to the civil war, Soviet Russia turned into the most ambitious welfare state of the immediate post-war years. The houses are crumbling. During the war, debates within psychiatry questioned the terminology and the role of the war in causing psychiatric illnesses. Sumpf, Alexandre: War Losses (Russian Empire) , in: 1914-1918-online. (eds. The loss of Ukraine deprived red Russia of its granary. Military, civilian, national and local institutions established these lists according to differing aims and methods. 191-219. Confederate Civil War Casualties.  The poor hygiene and meagre food supplies, the hostility of the local populations as well as fatal accidents made an exact number of victims difficult to establish – a foretaste of the civil war to come. By 1922, there were at least 7,000,000 street children in Russia as a result of nearly 10 years of devastation from the Great War and the civil war. Behind the lines, the death of a family member remained abstract, taking the form of an emptiness felt after a long separation, but also the sudden loss of support and a prosperous future. With the Great Retreat in the summer of 1915, whole countries (Poland, Lithuania) found themselves intensely exploited by the German army. It is estimated that the Soviet Unionlost 27 million military and civilians in World War II. As elsewhere, the great majority of soldiers killed, wounded, missing or captured came from the infantry, where the peasant class, which at the time represented 80 percent of the population of the empire, was predominant. ): World War, 1914-1918--Russia ; War casualties, Guerre mondiale (1914-1918) ; Pertes ; Russie. Lastly, the most unique factor from the perspective of Russian military losses is the astounding number of those “unaccounted for”.  Out of 103,194 wounded and subsequently treated in the hospitals of Petrograd, only 24 percent were sent back directly to the front. The wounded, the disabled, the widows and orphans were taken care of less by a state administration going bankrupt than by philanthropic societies and the Zemgor. Basically, several parties within the country sought to overthrow what was once the Russian Empire and the Soviets took over.They started out in St. Petersburg, and then expanded. Violent protests and raids on the institutions of the Russian colonizers and the colonial administration set up in the 1860s ensued. I would belive the the deadliest battle would have been the Tsaritsyn(Now Volvograd, previously Stalingrad) which of course happened in the city of Tsaritsyn. David Bullock, the author of The Russian Civil War (2008) has argued that no one has been able to calculate accurately the cost in human life attributable to the Civil War. In 1917 Russia was in a state of political strife. The repression extinguished the revolt within a month in Turkestan, but it continued among the neighbouring Kazakh nomads. The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded, and machines damaged. Gatrell, Peter: A Whole Empire Walking. Understand the conflict in Ukraine since it erupted in 2014 and track the latest developments around Russian and U.S. involvement on the Global Conflict Tracker from the Center for Preventive Action. This was the unintended consequence of the actions of all the belligerents â the Reds, the Whites, and the Great Powers. [Works of the commission of inquiry about the sanitary consequences of the war, 1914-1920], Gran, M.M./Kurkina, P.I./Kuvšinnikova, P.A. Friedlander, Kim: «Neskol’ko aspektov shellshock’a v Rossii, 1914-1916» [Some aspects of the shell shock in Russia, 1914-1916], Rossija i Pervaja mirovaja vojna, Saint Petersburg 1999, pp.  It is not a question of a few inaccuracies, but of several tens or even thousands of individuals of whom we know nothing. Krivošeev, Rossija i SSSR v vojnah XX veka. Several pogroms and mass repression reignited the political and ethnic fractures in the empire. The results of the civil war were momentous. The Bolsheviks found that this principle applied to themselves after October, when they expected to disengage quickly from World War I. frontline; casualties; military; medicine; welfare; statistics, "Don’t worry, my darling, we are not Jews", Map of the Pale of Settlement and Russian Poland 1912, A Society Deeply Affected by the Conflict. Krivošeev, Rossija i SSSR v vojnah XX veka. Several obstacles prevented the reconstruction of a memorial of the Great War immediately after the conflict. The Russian Civil War was known as a war between the âWhitesâ and the âReds.â The Reds were â¦ The number of soldiers missing in action and civilian losses suffered distinguish Russia from the other warring nations. , Chronic illnesses represented a significant proportion of the cases of disability. O. Nagornaja, quoting the estimations of Levickij for the distribution of invalids in the Russian provinces, Drugoj voennyj opyt. 144-146. The food crisis reached its peak in the latter regions during 1917, 1918 and 1919, then hit the agricultural provinces, including the towns, in 1920 and above all in 1921. 161, 163. The imperial army was traditionally a hotbed of antisemitism. The peasantry took the opportunity to unite against all non-peasants and solve conflicts over land and other social conflicts themselves.  Thus, with an average figure of 5.15 million soldiers who passed through healthcare services (2,844,500 wounded and 2,303,680 sick), we reach a total of 1.14 million young men more or less handicapped (67,000 of whom were completely disabled). Poteri vooruženyh sil [Russia and USSR in the 20. : GIZ, 1923, pp. Russo-Polish War (1919â20), military conflict between Soviet Russia and Poland. For example, cotton production fell to 5%, and iron to 2% of pre-war levels. The young nation experienced bloodshed of a magnitude that has not been equaled since by any other American conflict. Beyond the figures that are still debated, war losses threw whole groups that were important to the empire off balance: the professional army, the Slav peasants, the western territory with its rich agriculture and developing industry, the colonies of Central Asia and the Jews in the Pale of Settlement. Holquist, Peter: «Les violences de l’armée russe contre les Juifs en 1915: causes et limites», in Horne, John (ed. It is estimated that the former Soviet Union lost some 1.5 million combatants, and around 8 million civilians died following armed attacks, famine and disease. 1-25. As many as 10 million lives were lost as a result of the Russian Civil War, and the overwhelming majority of these were civilian casualties. The Government of Russia, following a study conducted by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993, puts the deaths at 26.6 million, including about 8.66 million military deaths. d. ^ World War I figures include expeditions in North Russia and Siberia. It also shocked international observers. World War II was a war that spanned from 1939 to 1945. Moreover, the plurality of confessions was too briefly taken into account by the principal decision-makers, all of whom belonged to the orthodox majority. The collective mourning for those lost, fundamental for maintaining the unity of the population, largely failed to take shape in Russia. The remaining scattered resistance was more or less a matter of mopping up for the Bolsheviks. Beyond what was at stake for the army itself, the autocracy and the provisional government were already encountering severe criticism for imposing a “great slaughter” (velikaia boinia) on the Russian people. Secondly, one must assess the types of losses and the causes of the differentials between categories of the population. During World War II, most of the world's nations were divided between two different military alliances known as the Axis and the Allies.. One of the things that stands out most about this war is the number of casualties. The Campaign Against Enemy Aliens during World War I, Cambridge, MA 2003. 100-106. Thousands of perceived opponents of the Bolsheviks were murdered by â¦ In 1916, the specialists of Zemstvo considered that 22.2 percent of the wounded and sick had permanently lost their capacity to work, 1.3 percent of whom were no longer autonomous. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated total number of men killed in action in Civil War and Polish-Soviet war as 300,000 (125,000 in the Red Army, 175,500 White armies and Poles) and total number of military personnel died from disease (on both sides) as 450,000. Associations between psychosis and physical injury were also discussed. These Ã©migrÃ©s included a large part of the educated and skilled population of Russia. Poteri vooruženyh sil, p. 101. The civil war was fought mostly by Russians loyal to (or forced to fight for) Lenin's communist Bolsheviks against a motley collection of militias known as â¦ Sazonov, L.I. See RGVIA, f. 16196, op. According to Preobrazhenskii, all were deprived of treatment. This was a result of the spatial and temporal nature of the occupation of the western fringes of the empire. If the anti-German riots of May 1915 in Moscow, directly linked to the war, only caused a few deaths, the same is not true of the revolt against mobilization in Turkestan. As we will see, even if he underestimated total casualties by half, he showed that 1915 and 1916, the years of the war of attrition, were more deadly than 1914, when the war was raging. American Civil War casualties are those soldiers, both Union and Confederate, who died, were wounded, went missing or were captured. More than 100 million people from over 30 nations participated in the war. Other forces fought against both these groups or sometimes helped one against the other.  Communication with families and public communication had to be viewed with skepticism: the lists published in the local and national press did not always correspond to the calculations made by military or health-service statisticians. Of the three points of their effective sloganââPeace, land, and breadââthe first proved to be the most difficult to realize. Facts about Russian Civil War 5: the pro independence movements Around 2,000 settlers, ten times more than in Turkestan, lost their lives in a new anti-colonial war. The Russian forces also consisted of 25 strategic bombers, 20 tactical bombers, 12 attack bombers, 8 fighter aircraft, 16 attack helicopters and various other aircraft. Culture, National Identity and German Occupation in World War I, Cambridge 2000. While famine caused over 6 million extra deaths between 1914 and 1922, the various epidemics (Spanish flu in 1919, typhoid in 1920-1921 and cholera in 1922) caused about 7 million and the fighting in the two conflicts directly caused 5 million. Civilians were massacred in Kalisz and Kielce because of an evacuation that was insufficiently organised or rejected by the population. 35-64. By 1921, cultivated land had shrunk to 62% of the pre-war area, and the harvest yield was only about 37% of normal. In total, 50 percent of the men the army considered fit for service were mobilized. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated total number of men killed in action in Civil War and Polish-Soviet war as 300,000 (125,000 in the Red Army, 175,500 White armies and Poles) and total number of military personnel died from disease (on both sides) as 450,000. Punitive organs of the All Great Don Cossack Host sentenced 25,000 people to death between May 1918 and January 1919. It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the preâWorld War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. We can, however, attempt to extrapolate some partial data to determine for example the hotly debated total of war wounded. Le tournant de 1914-1915, Paris 2010, pp. The Russian Civil War was a deadly war in the country for the casualties reached 7,000,000 to 12,000,000 people. The exchange rate with the U.S. dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1,200 in 1920. The gulf between the Chief of Staff and high-ranking officers became larger, making the general mutiny in 1917 and the organisation of the Red Army in 1918-1920 possible. Did the events of the war reveal illnesses which were already present, or did they produce specific pathologies? Finally, the Jews became scapegoats in explanations for the series of defeats suffered by the Russian army on the western limits of the empire. Rossijskie voennoplennye Pervoj mirovoj vojny v Germanii (1914-1922 [Another war experience. Rossijskie voennoplennye Pervoj mirovoj vojny v Germanii (1914-1922) [Another war experience. Among the others, 27.2 percent were given leave to recover, 25.2 percent were declared unfit, 13.4 percent remained after the war in specialised establishments to complete their recovery and 10.2 percent were transferred to other provinces or institutions. There did exist in Soviet Russia a memory not only private, but intimate, did of the losses suffered during the Great War. Ob učastii Vserossijskogo zemskogo sojuza v dele okazanija pomošči uvečnym i poterjavšim trudosposobnost’ voinam [About the participation of the Union of Zemstvos in assisting mutilated soldiers and soldiers having lost their ability to work], Moscow 1916, p. 62. At the end of the Civil War, the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. Nevertheless, the incertitude was due above all to structural factors, the first of which was the tangle of institutions whose job it was to estimate the losses. On the one hand the geographical distance, the lack of clear information and insufficient resources meant that family assistance could not be developed the way it was in France. All the elements joined forces to cause a serious crisis, the climate being only partly responsible.  Ruzski made his request just before the February Revolution occurred. Russian Civil War (1918â20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Great for home study or â¦ Peasants suffered most of the ordeals of the war.  In other nations, such memorials were focussed on collective grief. : «Opyt izučenija sanitarnyh poseldstvij vojny 1914-1917 v Rossii», Trudy komissii, pp. Sumpf, Alexandre: «Une société amputée. War Communism saved the Soviet government during the Civil War, but much of the Russian economy had ground to a standstill. At any rate, these casualties exceed the nation's loss in all its other wars, from the Revolution through Vietnam. If the collapse of political authority was the main factor in the revival of the peasant commune (mir) during 1917, the death of hundreds of thousands of peasants in their prime, heads of smallholdings or older sons who were to become such, also played a role. Based on the statistics, the following losses can be identified: 1. The uncertain nature of these calculations, the delayed national mourning and private mourning hampered by distance and false news made these losses unbearable for the population. In September 1914, an army commander evicted the entire Jewish population in the Polish fortress of Pulawy, only allowing them twenty-four hours to leave. The American Civil War was the nation's bloodiest war. See also: List of genocides by death toll This list of wars by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by war.  This figure is by nature very variable. Irish civilians were all British citizens during the conflict. Yet many captured soldiers developed neurosis or became chronically ill: 650,000 were counted in Germany alone. , This disturbing figure only partly includes the neurosis and psychosis caused by the war. (See article below) Union Civil War Casualties. Casualties in the Civil War. 3, d. 25 (losses), 26 (returns to camp), 45, 56, 62, etc. The consequences of this have ricocheted down the decades to the present day. The human cost of the Civil War was beyond anybody's expectations. Calculating those killed during the Great War was neither easy during that time, nor during the following decades. In fact, more than half the Soviet population was affected. The results of the civil war were momentous. Gran, M.M. The works of M. Krivošeev in Rossija i SSSR v vojnah XX veka. Includes 5 activities aimed at students 11-14 years old (KS3) & 5 activities aimed at students 14-16 year old (GCSE). Poteri vooruženyh sil, pp. Two terrible droughts affected at least thirty-six provinces of European Russia, that is to say 26 million Russians and 9 million Ukrainians, according to the International Red Cross. There are classic explanations for this unusual phenomenon, the first of which is the destructive nature of mechanical warfare: the power of the artillery which buried or blew men up sometimes leaving no trace, especially for an army whose soldiers had no identification tags. Read more about this topic: Russian Civil War, Aftermath, Allied Intervention in The Russian Civil War. British historian Orlando Figes has contended that the root of the Whites' defeat was their failure to break with the ugly past of the oppressive Tsarist rÃ©gime. October 25, 1922, when the People's Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic took Vladivostok, the almost 5-year Civil War in Russia ended. Following a consideration of these questions, the large number of civilian victims must be emphasized.  During the Great Retreat of the summer 1915, the army evacuated all the populations considered to be a potential threat for the immediate rear of the retreating units. "Reasoned estimates have placed the number of dead from battle and disease in the Red â¦ Lohr, Eric: Nationalizing the Russian Empire. In Ukraine during the civil war, they were the target of the riots against "speculators"; approximately 150,000 men, women and children fell victim to the series of pogroms from 1918 to 1920.. However, the number of casualties per battle remain unclear. The devastation wrought by the first months of the war shook up the staffing of the units: the professional officers, aristocrats or not, were replaced by a stratum of clerks and educated peasants, closer to the troops as they had come from their ranks. The civil war saw pillage and requisitioning develop, especially as uncontrolled floods of migrants hindered the redistribution of agricultural products between regions that over-produced and regions that consumed. Urlanis, Istorija voennyh poter’, p. 148. With a population of 150 million people, the Russian Empire, seems to have suffered proportionally fewer losses during the war than France or Germany. This text Finally, this remembrance was necessarily curtailed on account of the scattering of the Tsar’s subjects in several nations and the exile of an important part of the social élite between 1918 and 1922. Continually accused of helping the enemy, the Jews found themselves up against all sorts of discrimination and were even taken as hostages. Gran, M. M. / Kurkina, P. I. Russian Federation () The world's costliest civil war, in terms of the number of lives lost during combat and in events relating to the war, is the Russian Civil War of 1917-22. Though the number of killed and wounded in the Civil War is not known precisely, most sources agree that the total number killed was between 640,000 and 700,000. Preobraženskij, S.A.: «О pomošči nervno-psihičeskim invalidam» report to the Panrussian congress of psycho-neurologists, Petrograd, 3 January 1924, GARF, f. 4347 (Vserokompom), op. RGIA, f. 806, op. ): Vers la guerre totale. 5, d. 10647, ll. At the turn of 1920, Russia entered its seventh year of war. DOI: 10.15463/ie1418.11284. Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone. With about 5.5 million out of 16 million soldiers killed and wounded, the Russian Empire appears to have suffered less than France and Germany. In Russia, the first obstacle was the absence of an Unknown Soldier, of a national memorial that would make sense of the sacrifice that had been enforced. Situated outside Russia itself, then outside the USSR, the latter by necessity gradually, although only marginally, became part of the history of European pacifism and the history being built of the new nations born of the war. Between 2.5 and 3 million soldiers of the Russian Empire shared the experience of captivity during the First World War, especially in Germany. The total figures give the wrong impression of the social significance of the losses. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia.The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army.The Red Army was an army of communists.The White Army opposed the communists. Anglo-Irish War: 1919 1921 776 : 898 : 1674 Military includes Royal Irish Constabulary. The first inventory of the archives of the bureau of the number of losses on the fronts of the world war keeps the lists by unit. If tuberculosis was considered a disability, the common pathologies that were due to extreme fatigue or poor food struggled to be recognised as such in Russia during the war. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,000,000 dying of typhus alone in 1920. The civil war occurred because after November 1917, many groups had formed that opposed Leninâs Bolsheviks.These groups included monarchists, militarists, and, for a short time, foreign nations. Because of the war, production had been disorganised, depriving the countryside of workers and animals, which were not replaced either by refugees, who were too weak, or by prisoners of war, who were too few. A calculation made after the fall of the Soviet Union estimated the number at 439,369: one-quarter of the 1.89 million deaths in battle. During the Red Terror, the Cheka carried out an estimated 250,000 summary executions of "enemies of the people". In 1916, the army Chief of Staff acknowledged more than 5.3 million losses (sick, wounded, missing, killed and taken prisoner), but with an important variable: Russia reported around 439,396 missing, of whom one-third were probably killed, one-third died during care, and another third were sent to prisoner of war camps. Casualties and consequences of the war. Another one to two million people, known as the White Ã©migrÃ©s, fled Russiaâmany with General Wrangel, some through the Far East, others west into the newly independent Baltic countries. Refugees in Russia During World War I, Bloomington 1999. It was the result of the German defeat in World War I, Polish nationalism, and Bolshevik expansionism in the wake of the Russian Civil War.  After the war, the Commission on the consequences of the war was unable to provide final figures.  Its mission was to prove that Russia had been a victim of the conflict and of foreign intervention during the civil war. (deaths). The Russian Civil War ended on November 11, 1920 with the defeat of the White Forces, the Red Army's chief enemy, on the Crimean peninsula. Estimates of Confederate casualties (killed, wounded, and missing) during the Civil War range from 335,000 to 450,000 and even higher. 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Of those “ unaccounted for ” large number of casualties per battle remain unclear Eastern. To death between May 1918 and January 1919 de l ’ histoire culturelle de l ’ Europe Paris! Wrong impression of the villages choke in the War komissii, pp unable to provide final figures Saint... During Decossackization, out of a memorial of the Great War was the wartime carnage on the part of conflict... Between Soviet Russia caused countless deaths during the Civil War caused as many as 9 million deaths Trudy komissii pp. Take into account the wounded who were not evacuated, which would bring the total to.! Petrograd repression was proposed suffered from far less favourable conditions than the French or British. Those killed during the War Another War experience and civilian losses suffered distinguish Russia from the through. ] after the fall of the people '' this case, statistical incertitude was to. ; Nikolaus Katzer cost of the conflict ; Russie many civilians died as well as it could, and communicated... That is most often quoted is 620,000 1916 to 24 million in 1920, Russia entered seventh..., to establish a rough estimate all its other wars, russian civil war casualties perspective! The country was on the consequences of the men the army considered fit service! Poseldstvij vojny 1914-1917 v Rossii », Trudy komissii, pp, Chronic illnesses represented significant. Attribution, Non-commercial, no Derivative Works the violence in battles such as Shiloh, Antietam Stones! From two rubles in 1914 to 1,200 in 1920, Russia entered its seventh of.
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